Other conditions

There are many other conditions often associated with, and leading to, learning difficulties:

Reactive Attachment Disorder

A serious disorder affecting the social relationships of children who have experienced maltreatment, making them indiscriminately friendly or withdrawn and frightened.

Foetal alcohol syndrome

A pattern of birth defects, learning, and behavioural problems that tend to occur as a result of excessive alcohol intake during pregnancy.

Bipolar disorder

Previously known as manic depression, bipolar is a condition that can cause moods to swing from one extreme to another. People affected will have periods, or 'episodes', of depression, where they feel very low, and periods of mania, where they feel very high.


A neurological condition characterised by seizures (or convulsions) and sometimes blackouts (loss of consciousness).

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

An anxiety disorder characterised by repetitive, intrusive and unwelcome thoughts, images, impulses and doubts that the sufferer finds hard to ignore. Sufferers try to fight these thoughts with mental or physical rituals (the compulsions), which involve repeatedly performing actions such as washing, cleaning, checking, counting and hoarding.

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